Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can be beneficial in schizophrenia, possibly through a reversal of pre-treatment hypofrontality. Twelve schizophrenic patients (8 men, 4 women) were treatedwith high-frequency
rTMS of the dominant dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Their performance of the number-connection test, which assesses cognitive processes relatedto the frontal lobe, was evaluatedbefor e andafter rTMS. Women improved markedly on
the test after rTMS, whereas men did not show a significant change. There were no corresponding sex differences in clinical measures after rTMS. The preliminary findings of sex differences in the response to rTMS, as reflected by
performance on the number-connection test, suggest the needfor investigations of a greater number of schizophrenic men andwomen with a more intensive examination of the effects of rTMS on cognitive functions.